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Floor effects and the comparability of developing country student test scores

The report serves as a background paper to UNESCO’s 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report (GEMR). The theme of the 2020 GEMR is inclusive education, and this background paper deals with floor effects in international testing systems, a problem that complicates the monitoring of learning outcomes among the most marginalised children.

The paper is now available online. Unfortunately, a map in this version is not clear. The originally submitted copy without this problem is available for download below.