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Objectives One of the factors linked to South Africa’s relatively high maternal mortality ratio is late utilization of antenatal care (ANC). Early utilization is especially important in South Africa due to the high HIV prevalence amongst pregnant women. This study examined the impact of a package intervention, consisting of an incentive called the Thula Baba Box (TBB) and a community health worker (CHW) programme, on early utilization of ANC. Methods A pilot randomised controlled trial consisting of 72 women aged 18 and older was conducted in an urban area in South Africa to evaluate the impact of the package intervention. Women were recruited and randomised into either intervention (n = 39) or control group (n = 33). The intervention group received both the TBB and monthly CHW visits, while the control group followed standard clinical practice. Both groups were interviewed at recruitment and once again after giving birth. The outcomes measured are the timing of first ANC visit and whether they attended more than four times. It is anticipated that the box will also have a beneficial impact on infant health outcomes, but these fall out of the scope of this study. Results Women in the intervention groups sought care on average 1.35 months earlier than the control group. They were also significantly more likely to attend at least four antenatal clinic visits. Conclusions for practice Given the South African context and the importance of early care-seeking behaviour to improve health outcomes of HIV-positive pregnant women, the intervention can help to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of the two interventions separately, and to see if these findings hold in other communities.

Antenatal care, Community health worker, Incentives, Maternal health, Maternal mortality, South Africa


Rossouw, L., Burger, R.P. and Burger, R., 2019. An Incentive-Based and Community Health Worker Package Intervention to Improve Early Utilization of Antenatal Care: Evidence from a Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial. Maternal and child health journal23(5), pp.633-640.